Yesterday’s Programming Praxis task was to implement Chris Okasaki’s purely functional random-access list as described in his 1995 paper^{1}.

Okasaki’s random-access list preserves the *O*(1) time guarantee of standard lists of the primitive list operations `head`

, `cons`

, `tail`

while adding the possibility to access or update elements at a given index in *O*(lg *n*) time. (These operations are *O*(*i*) on standard lists, where *i* is the index.)

This is done by maintaining a list of complete binary trees – i.e. trees where all nodes are leaves or have exactly two children. The nodes are stored in *preorder* so that the first node of a tree is the head of the list that tree represents.

It can be shown that we only need a logarithmic number of trees by noting that each complete binary tree has height 2^{k} − 1 for *k* > 1 and that any integer *n* ≤ 0 can be written as a sum of 2^{k} − 1 terms. This decomposition is unique if we require the terms to be as large as possible. This *greedy* decomposition has at most ⌈lg (*n* + 1)⌉ terms.

We thus have *O*(lg *n*) time to find the right tree in the list of trees and *O*(lg *n*) time to find the requested node in the tree.

Okasaki goes on tho show that the worst-case time for lookups/updates is actually *O*(*m**i**n*{*i*, lg *n*}) – meaning that these random-access lists are never less efficient – and further that the expected time is *O*(lg *i*).

The following Haskell implementation mirrors closely the Stanard ML implementation in Okasaki’s paper.

```
import Prelude hiding (head, tail)
import Data.List (mapAccumL)
data Tree a = Leaf a | Node a (Tree a) (Tree a) deriving (Show, Eq)
type RAList a = [(Int,Tree a)]
-- constructs an empty RAList
empty :: RAList a
= []
empty
-- constructs an RAList from a list (O(n))
fromList :: [a] -> RAList a
= fst $ mapAccumL (\l e -> (cons e l,l)) empty (reverse l)
fromList l
-- converts an RAList to a list (O(n))
toList :: RAList a -> [a]
= []
toList [] = head xs:toList (tail xs)
toList xs
-- takes an RAList and an index and returns the item at that index (O(lg n))
index :: RAList a -> Int -> a
index ((size,t):r) i = if i < size
then index' (size,t) i
else index r (i-size)
where index' (size, Leaf x) 0 = x
Leaf x) i = error "index: index out of bounds"
index' (size, Node x t1 t2) 0 = x
index' (size, Node x t1 t2) i =
index' (size, let size' = size `div` 2
in if i <= size'
then index' (size',t1) (i-1)
else index' (size',t2) (i-1-size')
-- takes an RAList, an index and a value and updates the value at the given
-- position to the given value (O(lg n))
update :: RAList a -> Int -> a -> RAList a
:r) i e = if i < size
update ((size,t)then (size,update' size t i e):r
else update r (i-size) e
where update' size (Leaf x) 0 y = Leaf y
Leaf _) i y = error "update: index out of bounds"
update' size (Node x t1 t2) 0 y = Node y t1 t2
update' size (Node x t1 t2) i y =
update' size (let size' = size `div` 2
in if i <= size'
then Node x (update' size' t1 (i-1) y) t2
else Node x t1 (update' size' t2 (i-1-size') y)
-- prepends the given value to the given list (O(1))
cons :: a -> RAList a -> RAList a
@((s1,t1):(s2,t2):rest) =
cons x xsif s1 == s2
then (1+s1+s2,Node x t1 t2):rest
else (1,Leaf x):xs
= (1,Leaf x):xs
cons x xs
tail :: RAList a -> RAList a
tail ((_,Leaf _):rest) = rest
tail ((s,Node _ t1 t2):rest) = (s',t1):(s',t2):rest
where s' = (s-1) `div` 2
-- returns the list's head (O(1))
head :: RAList a -> a
head [] = error "head: empty list"
head ((_,Leaf x):_) = x
head ((_,Node x _ _):_) = x
= do
main -- some simple tests
let t = fromList [3,2,1]
print $ map (t `index`) [0,1,2] == [3,2,1]
print $ head t == 3
print $ toList (tail t) == [2,1]
let t' = update t 2 0
print $ map (t' `index`) [0,1,2] == [3,2,0]
```

Chris Okasaki:

*Purely Functional Random-Access Lists*. In*Functional Programming Languages and Computer Architecture*, pages 86–95, 1995.↩︎